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Gender role

Gender role


Talcott Parson s view of gender roles Working in the United States Talcott Parsons developed a model of the nuclear family in 1955 At that place and time the nuclear family was the prevalent family structure Itpared a strictly traditional view of gender roles from an industrial age American perspective to a more liberal view The Parsons model was used to contrast and illustrate extreme positions on gender roles Model A describes total separation of male and female roles while Model B describes the complete dissolution between gender roles The examples are based on the context of the culture and infrastructure of the United States Model A Total role segregation Model B Total integration of roles Education Gender specific education high professional qualification is important only for the man Co educative schools same content of classes for girls and boys same qualification for men and women Profession The workplace is not the primary area of women career and professional advancement is deemed unimportant for women For women career is just as important as for men Therefore equal professional opportunities for men and women are necessary Housework Housekeeping and child care are the primary functions of the woman participation of the man in these functions is only partially wanted All housework is done by both parties to the marriage in equal shares Decision making In case of conflict man has the last say for example in choosing the place to live choice of school for children buying decisions Neither partner dominates solutions do not always follow the principle of finding a concerted decision status quo is maintained if disagreement occurs Child care and education Woman takes care of the largest part of these functions she educates children and cares for them in every way Man and woman share these functions equally However these extreme positions are rarely found in reality actual behavior of individuals is usually somewhere between these poles The mostmon model followed in real life in the United States and Britain is the model of double burden See Gender roles and feminism below citation needed According to the interactionist approach roles including gender roles are not fixed but are constantly negotiated between individuals In North America and southern South America this is the mostmon approach among families whose business is agriculture Gender roles can influence all kinds of behaviors such as choice of clothing choice of work and personal relationships E g parental status See also Sociology of fatherhood Gender roles and socialization The process through which the individual learns and accepts roles is called socialization Socialization works by encouraging wanted and discouraging unwanted behavior These sanctions by agents of socialization such as the family schools and the media make it clear to the child what is expected of the child by society Mostly accepted behavior is not produced by outright reforming coercion from an accepted social system In some other cases various forms of coercion have been used to acquire a desired response or function In the majority of traditional and developmental social systems an individual has a choice as to what he or she should or should not conform to as a representative of the socialization process Through this process an individual willingly accepts the consequences whether they be beneficial or negative minor or severe depending on the way an individual copes and the extent to which he or she must modify his or her natural behavior to conform to society s accepted behavioral standards Typical encouragements and expectations of gender role behavior are not as powerful a difference and reforming social trait as they were a century ago clarification needed Such developments and traditional refinements are still a socialization process to and within family values peer pressures at the employment centers and in every social systemmunication medium clarification needed Still once someone has accepted certain gender roles and gender differences as expected socialized behavioral norm his or her behavior traits become part of his or her perceived responsibilities Influential roles in gender relationships on a personal and social level to the individual s own socializing role or self concept clarification needed Sanctions on unwanted behavior and role conflict can be stressful Gender roles with homogenization vs ethnoconvergence difference Changing norms of socialization Louis XV in 1712 wearing the customary clothes of unbreeched boys would be considered cross dressed in the 21st century It is claimed that even in monolingual industrial societies like urban North America some individuals do cling to a modernized primordial identity apart from others and with this a more diverse gender role is recognized or developed Some intellectuals such as Michael Ignatieff argue that convergence of a general culture does not directly entail a similar convergence in ethnic social and self identities This can become evident in social situations where people divide into separate groups by gender roles and cultural alignments despite being of an identical super ethnicity such as nationality Within each smaller ethnicity individuals may tend to see it perfectly justified to assimilate with other cultures including sexuality and some others view assimilation as wrong and incorrect for their culture or institution Thismon theme representing dualist opinions of ethnoconvergence itself within a single ethnic ormon values groups is often manifested in issues of sexual partners and matrimony employment preferences etc These varied opinions of ethnoconvergence represent themselves in a spectrum assimilation homogenization acculturation gender identities and culturalpromise aremonly used terms for ethnoconvergence which flavor the issues to a bias Often it is in a secular multi ethnic environment that cultural concerns are both minimalized and exacerbated Ethnic prides are boasted hierarchy is created center culture versus periphery but on the other hand they will still share amon culture andmon language and behaviors Often the elderly more conservative in association of a clan tend to reject cross cultural associations and participate in ethnically similarmunity oriented activities Biology The idea that differences in gender roles originate in differences in biology has found support in parts of the scientificmunity 19th century anthropology sometimes used descriptions of the imagined life of paleolithic hunter gatherer societies for evolutionary explanations for gender differences For example those accounts maintain that the need to take care of offspring may have limited the females freedom to hunt and assume positions of power More recently sociobiology and evolutionary psychology have explained those differences in social roles by treating them as adaptations This approach too is considered controversial Due to the influence of among others Simone de Beauvoir s feminist works and Michel Foucault s reflections on sexuality the idea that gender was unrelated to sex gained ground during the 1980s especially in sociology and cultural anthropology This view claims that a person could therefore be born with male genitals but still be of feminine gender In 1987 R W Connell did extensive research on whether there are any connections between biology and gender role and concluded that there were none Most scientists reject Connell s research because concrete evidence exists proving the effect of hormones on behavior citation needed However hormone levels vary and disorders can cause an intersex status The debate continues to rage on Simon Baron Cohen a Cambridge Univ professor of psychology and psychiatry claims that the female brain is predominantly hard wired for empathy while the male brain is predominantly hard wired for understanding and building systems Dr Sandra Lipsitz Bem is a psychologist who developed the gender schema theory to explain how individualse to use gender as an organizing category in all aspects of their life It is based on thebination of aspects of the social learning theory and the cognitive development theory of sex role acquisition In 1971 she created the Bem Sex Role Inventory to measure how well you fit into your traditional gender role by characterizing your personality as masculine feminine androgynous or undifferentiated She believed that through gender schematic processing a person spontaneously sorts attributes and behaviors into masculine and feminine categories Therefore an individual processes information and regulate their behavior based on whatever definitions of femininity and masculinity their culture provides The current trend in Western societies toward men and women sharing similar occupations responsibilities and jobs suggests that the sex one is born with does not directly determine one s abilities citation needed While there are differences in average capabilities of various kinds E g physical strength between the sexes citation needed the capabilities of some members of one sex will fall within the range of capabilities needed for tasks conventionally assigned to the other sex In addition research at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center has also shown that gender roles may be biological among primates Yerkes researchers studied the interactions of 11 male and 23 female Rhesus monkeys with human toys both wheeled and plush The males played mostly with the wheeled toys while the females played with both types equally Psychologist Kim Wallen has however warned against overinterpeting the results as the color and size of the toys may also be factors in the monkey s behavior Changing roles A person s gender role isposed of several elements and can be expressed through clothing behaviour choice of work personal relationships and other factors These elements are not concrete and have evolved through time for example women s trousers Traditionally only feminine and masculine gender roles existed however over time many different acceptable male or female gender roles have emerged An individual can either identify themselves with a subculture or social group which results in them having diverse gender roles Historically for example eunuchs had a different gender role because their biology was changed A woman publicly witnessing at a Quaker meeting seemed an extraordinary feature of the Religious Society of Friends worth recording for a wider public Engraving by Bernard Picart ca 1723 Androgyny a term denoting the display of both male and female behaviour also exists Many terms have been developed to portray sets of behaviors arising in this context The masculine gender role in the West has become more malleable since the 1950s One example is the sensitive new age guy which could be described as a traditional male gender role with a more typically female empathy and associated emotional responses Another is the metrosexual a male who adopts or claims to be born with similarly female grooming habits Some have argued that such new roles are merely rebelling against tradition more so than forming a distinct role However traditions regarding male and female appearance have never been concrete and men in other eras have been equally interested with their appearance The popular conceptualization of homosexual men which has become more accepted in recent decades has traditionally been more androgynous or effeminate though in actuality homosexual men can also be masculine and even exhibit machismo characteristics One could argue that since many homosexual men and women fall into one gender role or another or are androgynous that gender roles are not strictly determined by a person s physical sex Whether or not this phenomenon is due to social or biological reasons is debated Many homosexual people find the traditional gender roles to be very restrictive especially during childhood Also the phenomenon of intersex people which has become more publicly accepted has caused much debate on the subject of gender roles Many intersexual people identify with the opposite sex while others are more androgynous Some see this as a threat to traditional gender roles while others see it as a sign that these roles are a social construct and that a change in gender roles will be liberating According to sociology research traditional feminine gender roles have become less relevant and hollower in Western societies since industrialization started citation needed For example the clich that women do not follow a career is obsolete in many Western societies On the other hand in the media there are attempts by whom to portray women who adopt an extremely classical role as a subculture Women take on many roles that were traditionally reserved for men as well as behaviors and fashions which may cause pressure on many men to be more masculine and thus confined within an even smaller gender role while other men react against this pressure For example men s fashions have become more restrictive than in other eras while women s fashions have become more broad One consequence of social unrest during the Vietnam War era was that men began to let their hair grow to a length that had previously within recent history been considered appropriate only for women Somewhat earlier women had begun to cut their hair to lengths previously considered appropriate only to men Some famous people known for their androgynous appearances in the 20th century include Brett Anderson Gladys Bentley David Bowie Pete Burns Boy George Norman Iceberg k d lang Annie Lennox Jaye Davidson Marilyn Manson musician Freddie Mercury Marlene Dietrich Mylne Farmer Gackt Mana musician Michael Jackson Grace Jones Marc Bolan Brian Molko Julia Sweeney as Pat fictional character Genesis P Orridge Prince and Kristen McMenamy Culture and gender roles During World War II women filled job positions some
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